- “Logic and Methodology of Science: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science”, en Lorenzano, P., Rheinberger, H.-J., Ortiz, E. and C. Galles (eds.), History and Philosophy of Science and Technology, Vol. 1, Oxford: EOLSS Publishers Co. Ltd., 2010, pp. 1-50.
This chapter presents some aspects of the logic and methodology of science within the framework of the philosophy of science. This, as well as the history of science, the psychology of science, the sociology of science, the anthropology of science, the politics of science, and the economics of science, is part of the so-called metascientific studies or science studies or, more precisely, studies about science, which have science as its object of study, with the aim of understanding both its nature and the way it functions, better. Nevertheless, since it makes a reflection on science from philosophy, it is also a part of it. The present chapter could be considered an introduction to certain subjects which we consider central and basic in metascientific reflection in general and philosophical reflection on science in particular. These subjects are the nature and function of philosophy of science (Section 1), the scientific concepts and the test and evaluation of hypotheses (Section 2), the notions of scientific law and explanation (Section 3) and of scientific theory (Section 4). While we are dealing with each one of these subjects, we will persistently refer to methods, developments and authors belonging to the various phases we have identified in the history of the philosophy of science of the 20th century and of the 21st century so far. This chapter comes under the level of the general philosophy of science and, from there, it will provide elements which will enable us to reflect on the different particular scientific practices and theorizations. It will also make the link between these reflections and those made from other perspectives -historical, psychological, sociological, anthropological, political, economic- possible, in order to lead to a better understanding of at least one of the aspects of the exciting world around us: the world of science.